Impression die forging, commonly known as closed die forging, is a manufacturing procedure that involves shaping metal using a die set. In this process, metal is heated until it becomes malleable, and then it is pressed into a die set that has been shaped to create the desired final product. This technique is widely used in aerospace, automotive, and other industries to create high-strength metal parts. Here are some key terms if you want to learn more about closed die forging.
Terms You Need to Know
A die set is a collection of tools used to shape the metal during the forging process. It includes two or more dies that are shaped to create the desired final product. The dies are typically made of high-strength steel and are precision-machined to ensure they are the correct shape and size.
Flash is the excess metal squeezed out of the die set during the forging process. It occurs when the metal is pressed into the die set and is forced out of the sides. Flash can be removed after the forging process is complete, but it is often left in place to help support the metal during the process.
Upset is a term that is used to describe the process of increasing the diameter of the metal during the forging process. This is typically done by compressing the metal in a die set that has been shaped to create the desired final product.
Draft is the amount of taper that is built into the die set. It is used to ensure that the metal can be removed from the die set after the forging process is complete. A draft is typically measured in degrees and can vary depending on the shape and size of the final product.
Gates and Risers
Gates and risers are channels built into the die set to allow the metal to flow into the desired areas. Gates are typically used to control metal flow into the die set, while risers provide additional metal to the die set as needed.
Heat treatment is a process used to change the physical properties of the metal. It typically involves heating the metal to a high temperature and cooling it down rapidly. This process can be used to improve the final product’s strength, hardness, and durability.
Forging pressure is the amount of force that is applied to the metal during the forging process. It is oftentimes measured in pounds per square inch (PSI) or tons. The forging pressure used will depend on various factors, including the size and shape of the final product, the type of metal being used, and the desired physical properties of the final product.
A preform is a piece of metal that has been partially shaped before it is placed in the die set. Preforms can be used to reduce the amount of material that needs to be forged and can help improve the final product’s accuracy.
Trimming is the process of removing excess material from the final product after the forging process is complete. This can be done using a variety of techniques, including sawing, grinding, and machining.
Hot shearing is a process that is used to cut the metal while it is still hot and malleable. This can be done using specialized tools, such as shearing dies or cutting wheels, and can help to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the forging process.
An ingot is a block of metal that has been cast into a specific shape. Ingots are typically used as the starting material for closed die forging and can be made from various metals, including steel, aluminum, and copper.
It is a heat treatment process that is used to soften the metal after it has been forged. It involves heating the metal to a specific temperature and cooling it slowly. Annealing can help reduce the metal’s internal stresses and improve its overall strength and flexibility.
Forging temperature refers to the temperature of the metal during the forging process. The ideal forging temperature will depend on various factors, including the type of metal being used, the shape and size of the final product, and the desired physical properties.
Generally, the forging temperature is kept high enough to make the metal malleable but not so high that it becomes difficult to handle.
Strain rate refers to the rate at which the metal is deformed during the forging process. It is typically measured in units of strain per second and can significantly impact the final product’s physical properties. A high strain rate can result in a stronger, more durable product, while a low strain rate can result in a more malleable product and the ability to withstand repeated stresses.
Die lubricant is a substance applied to the die set to reduce friction and prevent the metal from sticking to the die. This can help to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the forging process and can also help to extend the life of the die set.
Hammer forging is closed die forging that uses a power hammer to shape the metal. The power hammer delivers a series of rapid blows to the metal, which helps to shape it quickly and efficiently.
Press forging is a type of closed die forging that uses a hydraulic press to shape the metal. The press applies a steady, even pressure to the metal, which allows for more precise control over the forging process.
Grain flow refers to the alignment of the metal grains during the forging process. By controlling the grain flow, manufacturers can ensure that the final product has optimal strength and durability.
Learn More About Closed Die Forging
Closed die forging is a complex manufacturing process that requires a high degree of skill and precision. By understanding the key terms and concepts associated with this process, you can better appreciate the skill and craftsmanship that goes into creating high-strength metal parts.