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Closed Die Forging and Its Capacity to Create Near Net Shape and Sizes

Because closed die forging does not require hot material like open die forging, it can generate intricate shapes. It is a more efficient and cost-effective method of creating forged products. Likewise, it provides a lower production cost since each part requires less effort after the initial shaping step. 

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Near Net Shape Forging in Detail

What Is It?

Near net shape forging is a relatively new development of the traditional closed die forging method. It usually relates to various as-forged surfaces, closer dimensional tolerances, virtual elimination of the draft, variable parting line locations, and geometric characteristics that are thinner and more intricate. 

The final product has fewer machining operations, making it lighter. Because of this, it also leads to lower raw material and energy expenses. In many cases, the only machining operations required are the drilling of attachment holes. 

In the heat-treated and as-forged condition, near net shape forgings have a greater production cost than their conventionally forged equivalents. They are usually, but not always flashless. As post-forging machining procedures are removed, the cost advantage moves to near net shape forging. 

As Compared to Machining

Correlated to the machining process, closed die forging is a precision forging method with flash, with this section being the only material loss. However, most experts sometimes utilize machining to substitute the closed die forging method, but because the ideal shape is achieved by machining equipment, a lot of material can be wasted. 

Closed Die Forging products   

Closed Die Forging Used in Aviation

A cost research and analysis conducted by experts for applying several processes like machining, near net shape forging, and investment casting yielded significant results, especially in aviation supplies and components. The most notable among the many is that the production efficiency of net form closed die forging is higher, and the cost is reduced for big volume production runs. 

If you want to know more about the advantages of using near net shape forging, contact our professionals today! 

How Is Zirconium Forged?

Have you heard of the metal zirconium? It’s a chemical element that is strong and solid at room temperature. It requires complex physio-chemical processes to get there. When it is in pure form, it becomes a corrosion-resistant metal that can handle high water temperatures.

In addition, it can create different alloys that can handle highly corrosive environments, such as strong alkalis and mineral acids. This is why it’s very useful for parts that will be exposed to extreme environments.

If you’re looking to weld zirconium, there are different methods that can be used. The most common method is gas-tungsten arc (GTAW), but other methods include gas metal-arc (GMAW), plasma-arc, electron-beam, and resistance welding. Each process has its own set of perks, so it’s important to choose the right one for your project.  hammers with zirconium content


Ways to Wield Zirconium

Gas-Tungsten Arc Wielding

GTAW is the most common method used to weld zirconium. It’s a welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce an arc between the electrode and the workpiece. The arc is used to heat the workpiece, which melts the metal and allows it to be welded.

Gas Metal-Arc Wielding

GMAW is another welding process that can be used to weld zirconium. It’s a semi-automatic or automatic welding process that uses a wire electrode that is fed through a welding gun. The wire electrode is used to create an arc between the workpiece and the electrode. The heat from the arc dissolves the metal, which is then welded.

Plasma-Arc Welding

Plasma-arc welding (PAW) is a type of welding that uses a plasma torch to create an arc between the electrode and the workpiece. The plasma torch is utilized to ionize the gas that is passing through it, which creates a plasma arc. The heat from the plasma arc dissolves the metal, which is then welded.

new technology with zirconium

Where to Get Quality Zirconium End Products?

Now that you know the different methods that can be used to weld zirconium, it’s time to choose the perfect one for your project. If you’re not sure which method to use, consult with a professional. At Ferralloy Inc., we will be able to help you choose the right method. Call us!

Why Choose Closed Die Forging?

Open die forging, wherein the die only comes in contact with part of the workpiece at a time, is distinct from closed die forging. The latter has high initial costs for establishing fool-proof processes and tools, but it is the most cost-effective forging technique for bulk production. The reason is that recurrent expenses for each item are very low. Furthermore, closed die forging can create both symmetrical and non-symmetrical components.

Man About to Lift  Heated Metal After Closed Die Forging

Basic Info About Closed Die Forging


Titanium, tool steel, nickel, copper, stainless steel, alloy metals, aluminum, carbon steel, naval brass, and high alloy steel are all common materials for closed die forging. This ground-breaking closed die forging process has a variety of significant advantages, including:

  • It’s low cost. In the long run, closed die forging is usually less expensive.
  • Closed die forging provides a highly desirable combination of material savings and greater strength.
  • It allows items to be created at a significantly faster rate than conventional production techniques. Work cells for automated forging are also utilized to boost manufacturing efficiency.
  • Customization is easier. It makes it simple to achieve complex shapes and forms by tailoring the forging process to certain manufacturing methods.

Forging companies offer systematic and thorough detailed machining, as well as testing of all closed die forged components and products. Sometimes, the company can get you complete service experience in the forging factory.

Guide to Buying Closed Die Forgings

  • Closed die forging suppliers and buyers should maintain close association and collaboration to achieve the highest quality products at the most affordable costs.
  • Tight collaboration and a strong working relationship with the forger are essential when you want the latest sophisticated closed die forging technologies. You can assure cost-effectiveness with high-quality outcomes by staying informed about the latest changes.
  • Closed die forging requires a degree of craftsmanship and personalization. It is critical to include the company in the specification and design phases of product development before going forward.
  • The forging buyer should have a basic understanding of the closed die forging process’ equipment and techniques. It’s also critical to establish that the potential supplier has the necessary equipment and facilities to make the part.
  • As a customer, you should be aware of the closed die forging company’s ability to provide services such as quality inspection, testing, machining, and heat treatment, among others.

Finished Product of Closed Die Forging

Where to Get Quality Closed Die Forging Components

At Ferralloy Inc., we make sure that you receive quality forging parts and components. Contact us today!

How Does Metal Forging Play a Role in Civil Engineering?

You might have heard of closed die forging, but understanding what it means is another matter.

It plays a massive role in civil engineering, but the vast majority of people have no clue how vital the forging sector is to the modern world. Without it, everything would come to a standstill.

hot metal poured during the closed die forging process

How Reliable Is Forging in Engineering?

Forged Stainless Steel Introduction to Engineering

Stainless steels have been around since the turn of the century when the New York Times announced in 1915 that a corrosion-resistant alloy had been found in Sheffield, England, which was ideal for cutlery.

Thus started the long journey of stainless-steel evolution in rolled form, culminating in today’s current grades suitable for all technical applications. Stainless steel forgings, in addition to the rolled stainless plate, have been growing in popularity.

Applications of Stainless-Steel Forgings

These are utilized in nearly every engineering sector, including general engineering systems, road and highway construction, oil and gas, aerospace, and automotive.

Road and Highway Forgings

Forgings provide the metal components needed to maintain the operation grinding from the quarry to the kiln, mixing to installation in road and highway.

Oil and Gas Industry

Stainless steel forgings are used in the oil and gas sector to make flanges, reducers, pump casings, and impellors.

Aerospace and Aviation Industry

Airframe members are forged from stainless steel alloy because of the strength-to-weight ratio. Stainless steel grades are also used to make a variety of fasteners, such as screws.

Automotive Industry

Crankshafts, pulleys, gear wheels, compressor pumps, radiators, exhaust components, and coolers are all made of stainless-steel closed die forgings in the automotive sector.

closed die forging process

Want to Know More About the Capabilities of Closed Die Forging?

Our capabilities for closed die forging include stainless steel and steel alloy forging, as well as value-added services like heat treatment, assembling, and testing. Contact Ferralloy to learn more about how our unique forging solutions can help you address your most challenging design difficulties.

Materials Used in Closed Die Forging

While practically all metal materials are employed in closed die forging, only a portion of the materials is used in real manufacturing for the various properties. One of the most important elements affecting the cost of forgings is the material utilized. Let’s look at some of the materials that are commonly utilized in closed die forgings. 

Hot Forging process after Closed Die Forging method

Common Materials in Closed Die Forging

Forged Aluminum

Because of its low density, great strength, and ease of machining, aluminum is quite popular. It’s commonly utilized in closed die forging, particularly in the automotive and aerospace industries.  

Despite its widespread use in the aerospace and automotive industries, it poses a problem for domestic forging due to its tendency for deformation after forging. Heat treatment, on the other hand, can help to improve hardness and other qualities. 

Forged Brass or Copper

Brass forging and copper forging is a superior manufacturing method in which forging presses apply great pressure to heated pure brass, resulting in a defect-free output. 

The closed die forging method produces high-quality brass and copper hot forgings that compare favorably in material integrity, dimensional accuracy, and surface finish to products created using other primary metalworking methods. 

Forged Steel

Steel is by far the most frequently recommended material for closed die forging. Depending on the forging’s purpose, alloy steel, carbon steel, and stainless steel are all used. Components that require corrosion and rust resistance are frequently made of stainless steel. 

Steel forgings feature lower surface porosity, finer grain structure, higher tensile strength, and more ductility than any other steel processing method. 

Why Should You Go with Closed Die Forging?

Closed die forging has high upfront costs for developing processes and tools, but it is the most cost-effective forging method for large-volume production because recurrent costs per part are low. 

worker assembles the Closed Die Forging finished unit

Want To Know More About Rolled Rings?

Here at Ferralloy Inc., we are pleased to offer you some of the industry’s highest-quality forged components. We know everything there is to know about metal forging, including closed die forging. Contact us or request a quote today for more information on the various types of forging available. 

The History of Forging

Ever wondered how open die and closed die forging began? The art of forging emerged around 4,000 B.C. – some even say that it began way before this time. Metals like iron and bronze were forged to produce hand tools and other weapons for defense. However, the earliest recorded metal forged by early generations was made out of gold. If you want to know more about the history of forging, please read on.

closed die forging

Centuries of Forging Developments

Before the 19th Century

Limited amounts of natural gold were found in Spanish caves and were said to be used as tools and weapons in the late Paleolithic period. The forging of steel and iron continued in the 19th century and its improvements became the pillars of what has become of today’s forging processes.

19th Century

Forgers and other experts on the forging process were specifically skilled at hand, especially when it comes to open die and closed die forgings. Since bent and twisted iron can only be produced in high heat, the forgers became dexterous in hammer welding and several large shaft forgings.

In 1856, the emergence of the Bessemer steel-making process became a breakthrough in the history of the forging process. People now have an abundant supply of low-cost steel for creating and designing large quantities of forgings.

Historians say that the first cavity steel forging began with the help of the closed die process. It commenced in the United Stated in 1862.

20th Century

The Industrial Revolution and World War II both lead to the development of better forging equipment and processes. Eventually, electrical motors and induction heaters enabled forged rolled rings to be produced quicker, easier, and more effectively than ever before.

closed die forging

Know More About Closed Die Forging

Clearly, forgings have come a long way since 4,000 B.C. Start using the modern power of forged rolled rings for your next project by contacting our accommodating staff at Ferralloy Inc.

Forgeability of a Metal

The ability of a metal to undergo deformation without cracking by means of forging is what experts call the forgeability of a metal. With this characteristic, metals can easily be formed with low force and resistance. For instance, closed die forging involves a process wherein the dies move toward each other by covering the metal. The heated raw material is placed at the bottom die to produce a design or shape according to specifications. To know more about the forgeability of the metal, please continue reading.


What is Closed Die Forging?

All about Forgeability

Tests to Determine Forgeability

According to experts, there are two primary tests to determine forgeability of a metal – Upsetting test and Hot-twist test. Upsetting test involves cracking while upsetting a cylindrical specimen.  Although this test only provides basic guidelines, it uses different strain and temperature rates to ensure that forgeability can be determined.

On the other hand, the hot-twist test requires the twisting of a metal rod at different temperature rates. Using this method, forgeability can be determined for various materials, including steel.

Extrusion Process

Extrusion is conducted by deforming metal and transporting it into a chamber before the compression process starts. In standard extrusion procedures, a round billet is placed in a chamber and forced through a die opening by a ram. Additionally, this process requires extreme temperature for the material to be completely formed.

The methods of extrusion involved in forgeability of a metal are direct extrusion, indirect extrusion, hydrostatic extrusion, and impact extrusion.

Metal Flow

Metal flow is an important factor to consider when deforming a metal. It must have a substantial reduction in the cross-sectional part of the process to make sure that the flow is undisturbed. Also, extrusion defects may occur if there are impurities and oxides caused due to the inhomogeneous flow of metal. When this happens, surface defects will thrust or be expelled into the center of the extruded parts.


What is Closed Die Forging?

More Information about Closed Die Forging and Extrusion

At Ferralloy Inc., we strive to provide answers for every inquiry! Contact us today if you have any questions and our friendly staff will be glad to answer them!

Advantages and Disadvantages of Closed Die Forging

Otherwise known as impression-die forging, closed die forging relates to a process in which a metal is placed between shapes that are customized to fit the metal. Such metal is then pressed and hammered, causing it to fill and flow in the cavities of the custom-shaped dies. This forging classification is one of the most frequently used processes for forging steel components.

Closed die forging can produce longer-lasting and stronger products because it works well with the steel’s internal grain structure.

Why is Closed Die Forging Frequently Used?


The noteworthy advantage offered by closed die forging is that it needs little-to-no machining at all. It simply makes use of the force produced from all the pressing and hammering during the closed die forging process. Likewise, it uses the right amount of heat to deform the steel so it can accurately fill the die mold or impression.

Closed die forging can be used to create parts made out of almost all metal materials, including steel, aluminum, and countless other metal alloys. Thanks to no material limitations, parts can be made to fit your exact needs. Other advantages of closed die forging are:

  • Capacity to create near net shape and sizes
  • More accurate and steady impressions
  • Can achieve several shapes and dimensions have tight tolerances
  • Superior mechanical properties and better surface finish


Just like everything in life, there are some disadvantages to products – that includes closed die forgings. Some of the common disadvantages include:

  • Size limitation
  • It is not cost-effective for short production runs for the high tooling cost
  • Shape limitation – For these components with an irregular shape, it is also not available
  • Such complex products can only be made by casting

What is Closed Die Forging?

Get Exceptional Closed Die Forging at Ferralloy Inc.!

At Ferralloy, our team will closely work with you to determine if closed die forgings are the best options for your company. We will provide you with every detail you need so you can make a better choice. If you’re interested, contact us today!

Technical Specifications: Closed Die Forging

Closed die forging uses a controlled procedure with a culmination of alloys and heated metals to create the desired shape. Without an appropriate forging die lubricant, effective and economical closed die forging is unattainable. To know more about the technical specifications of this type of forging, please read on.

Mechanical Characteristics of Closed Die Forging



Alloys Used

Closed die forging is a type of forging that has exceptional mechanical characteristics – one of which is adaptability to the different kinds of an alloy such as copper, bronze, and aluminum. Aside from allows, it can also adapt or mold various kinds of steel like stainless steel, tool steel, and alloy steel.


When using closed die forging, the tooling division must go through the center of the forging and should not run through the side. The reason for this is that the forging must be detachable from its divisions.

The different cross-sections must be equal to avoid extreme disparities in the flow of the metal. Additionally, a closed die forging uses low and wide rib features. To avoid quick tooling cracks or wear in forgings, manufacturers use large radii. Moreso, an ample and suitable draft angle should be provided wherein compliance of the 5° to 7° for steel and 3° for aluminum are mandatory.

Benefits and Finishing Options

Closed die forging is known for its economical procedure compared with welding assemblies. Other notable benefits include high production speed, use of highly homogeneous steel and alloys, and high rating when it comes to good repeatability. As for the finishing options, closed die forging allows blasting, vibra-polishing, hot-dip galvanizing, and electrolytic zinc plating.

Factors that Guarantee Only the Finest Forging Die

The finished product of a closed die forging is affected by several factors. The most common of which is the accurate process of application of die lubricant at proper intervals. Similarly, the forging result may also be affected by the decrease in friction during the forging procedure. Friction can satisfactorily be decreased by using appropriate polished dies and die lubricants.


Get Closed Die Forging Products at Ferralloy

In every closed die forging production, there should always be factors to consider. At Ferralloy, all of these factors are taken into consideration. Get in touch with us today through this link!

Lubricant Choices in Closed-Die Forging

Closed die forging includes a controlled plastic deformation process of alloys and heated metals to achieve the desired shape. Without an appropriate forging die lubricant, effective and economical closed die forging is unattainable.

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Factors Affecting Closed Die Forging Quality

Factors that Ensure Optimal Life of a Forging Die

The life of a closed die forging is affected by many factors. The most common of which is the proper method of application of die lubricant at appropriate intervals. Likewise, the forging result may also be affected by the reduction of friction during the forging process. Friction can sufficiently be reduced by using suitable die lubricants and polished dies.

Moreso, proper heat treatment, while the forging process is ongoing, is mandatory. The use of protective anti-scale coating will help reduce scaling on critical surface areas of the material. Lastly, using a correct die material and design can make a difference. 

Types of Forging Die Lubricants

There are numerous types of closed die forging lubricants. Manufacturers often used water with soluble oils, graphite, sawdust, or common salt. The use of these types of lubricants offers several benefits to produce quality forging materials. It is economical, eco-friendly, non-polluting, easy to use, and improve the forging die life and productivity. 

Aside from using water and other mixes, closed die forging manufacturers also use oil without graphite, special oil with graphite, or furnace oil. These types require no purchase hassles, they are the least expensive, and they can improve your material’s die life.

Selection of the Right Type

Choosing the right type of closed die forging lubricant will depend on numerous parameters such as complexity of the forging, size, methods of dispensing the oil, pollution control, cost reduction, and depth of die cavity. 

The selection of the best type will require rigid guidelines and several field trials. Hence, the correct procedure of dispensing the lubricant and appropriate type of oil plays a decisive factor in achieving your desired metal shape. 

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Quality Closed Die Forging at Ferralloy

At Ferralloy Inc., we provide furnace components, extrusions, fabrications, fasteners, forgings, and the like with only the best quality. Contact us today!