The forging industry has come a long way from using inefficient processes and antiquated applications. Today, we see forging engineering in various industries including machinery, construction, automotive, agricultural, oilfield equipment, and so much more. Although there are numerous options for metal deformation using the forging concept, the most widely-applied processes are closed and Open Die Forging.
The Difference Between Closed and Open Die Forging
- Closed die forging is also called impression die forging. It’s a process that involves the compression of a piece of metal under high pressure in order to fill an enclosed die impression for the required shapes. Sometimes, a second forging operation is needed to achieve the shapes’ proper dimensions. Among the factors that determine the cost of a closed die forged part are the type of material, the need for heat treatment, and the tightness of tolerances.
In terms of application, closed die forging is commonly used for small critical parts such as forged fittings, forged automotive parts, forged lifting and rigging hardware, etc. because of its high precision. Its benefits include better surface finish, it requires little or no machining, no material limitation, cost-effective for large production runs, and the dimensions of net shapes and tighter tolerances are highly achievable.
- Open die forging is also known as free forging or smith forging. It refers to the process of deforming a workpiece by placing it in between dies that are usually flat and don’t completely enclose the material. Through a series of continuous movements, the dies hammer the metal until the required shape is formed. This process is used for simple products in small quantities such as cylinders, rings, discs, and shafts.
This forging technique is found to be more appropriate for large parts in a number of tons. Examples of these parts include forged rollers, forged long shafts, and forged cylinders. The benefits of Open Die Forging include cost savings, minimal material waste, reduced chances of voids, reduced lead time, little or no tooling cost, finer grain size, continuous grain flow, longer part life, increased part strength, improved microstructure, and better fatigue resistance.
Open Die Forging
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