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The Art of Open Die Forging

There are several distinct kinds of forging. In rolled ring forging, a thick, round piece of metal is punched, and then that portion is rolled and squeezed into a thin ring. In closed die forging, two dies are moved closer to one another until they completely enclose the workpiece and produce the required item. Open die forging is the next process that will be explained in this blog post.

melting of metal before open die forging begins

Open Die Forging in Just a Few Minutes


In open die forging, metal pieces are heated between a top die connected to a ram and a bottom die to distort them. The metal is gently pressed into or hammered into the correct shape while being processed at temperatures between 500 and 2400 °F. To acquire the tolerances for finished standards, the process typically needs a second machine or refinement.


Open die forging is advantageous even if it requires more labor. Both basic and sophisticated pieces can be made using it, including:

  • Shafts
  • Cylinders
  • Rings
  • Sleeves
  • Discs

One of the main advantages of this kind of forging is that the metal is repeatedly worked, increasing its strength and final product’s grain structure. Over and above, it improves the product’s resistance to fatigue and decreases voids.

Because the physical qualities of the metal are enhanced and developed during the forging process, open die forging results in a metal creation that has distinctive physical features. This indicates that as the metal’s grain structure is improved, its density rises, which increases its total strength. In addition, the metal’s grain flow is changed in a way that allows it to counterbalance, accept, and neutralize the stress load burden of a finished part or assembly.

molten ring being subjected to open die forging

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Free Forging and Its Pros and Cons

The forging industry has come a long way. It has found new uses as a result of the utilization of various processes and techniques, making the overall process more fruitful and efficient. With the advancement of technology and methods, the forging process, especially open die forging, has found applications in a variety of industries, including automotive, construction, agriculture, machinery, and others.

Open Die Forging Finished Product

All You Need to Know About Free Forging

What is Open Die Forging?

Myriad dies are positioned around the metal to restrict the specific area without completely enclosing it. Between these open dies, the deformation process begins. By using die stamp and hammers to create a pounding pattern, the metal is pushed to change its shape to match the finished product.

Although the material used is not heated in this procedure, the process employs strong forces to compact it. As a result, the forging hammer deforms the material with a constant hitting motion.

What Is Required?

Because the dimensions achieved by hammering during the free die process can be imperfect, this type of forging technique is not advised for complex geometries and it frequently involves precision machining to finish the process.

What Are the Pros and Cons?

The disadvantages of open die forging are as follows:

  • Process does not always yield consistent outputs or desirable characteristics.
  • To finish open-die forgings, machining is often required.
  • Not ideal for producing complicated, precise pieces or other applications requiring close tolerance.

Below are the common advantages why industries choose free forging:

  • There are a number of sizes available, ranging from a few millimeters to approximately 100 feet.
  • Reduced time to market
  • Tooling costs are minimal or non-existent.

Process of Open Die Forging

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Ferralloy is a prominent creator and manufacturer of high-performance open-die forgings. We can assist your team if you believe open-die forging would boost your output. Come see us today!

Are Forgings Stronger than Castings?

Forgings involve various metalworking processes that manufacture parts with a strength more significant than other metalworking techniques. Once the metal piece is shaped during the forging process, the internal grain structure of such metal becomes uninterrupted throughout the part, producing results with exceptional reliability at high-stress points and inconceivable strength. But is this method really better than castings? Read on to find out!


Advantages of Forgings Over Castings


The flexibility of forged materials allows cost-effective production that accommodates every demand. Moreso, forging processes like open-die, closed-die, and ring rolling adapt to different production run lengths and allow for shorter lead times. While special performance castings only necessitate more expensive materials and process controls, as well as longer lead times.

Better Heat Treatment Response

According to metal manufacturers, forging provides a better response to heat treatment. Because alloy segregation can happen in castings, the melting and cooling operations must be closely monitored. This causes uneven heat treatment responses, which might impair finished product straightness. Heat treatment is more predictable with forgings, and they have superior dimensional stability.

Less Costly, More Reliable

It cannot be overemphasized that forging metals is cost-effective. Errors and imperfections in castings come in a range of shapes and sizes. Forged materials are more dependable because the proper heat treatment refines grain pattern and gives resistance, elasticity, and high strength qualities. They’re also made without the extra expenditures associated with casting’s stricter inspections and control process.

Refines Better

Casting metals neither produce directional strength nor grain flow. Additionally, the process cannot reduce nor eliminate the formation of some metallurgical defects. On the other hand, pre-working forge stock results in grain flow that is orientated in the directions that require the most strength. Alloy segregations, dendritic formations, and other flaws are rectified in forging.


Is Metal Forgings Right for You?

While forging outperforms casting in terms of predictable strength qualities, resulting in superior strength that can be counted on from part to part, there are instances when castings may be the better process. Contact us to find out which one is better for you!


How Are Dies Made?

You’ve probably read about open or closed die casting in several articles, but do you know how dies are made? A die is a customized machine tool used by manufacturing industries to cut and/or form the material into a specific shape or profile. Dies, like molds, are usually tailored to the item they’re intended to make.   

rolls of seamless rolled ring forgings

Production and Usage of Dies    

How They’re Made    

Die-cut products range from basic paper clips to complicated parts utilized in high-tech applications. Continuous-feed laser cutting has the potential to replace similar die-based processes in a variety of industries, including the automotive industry.    

Die casting and injection molding were developed in the 20th century, resulting in a necessity for another type of tooling: dies for die casting and plastic molding. Numerous tool and die shops have taken over the production of these productions. These shops and industries produce dies by using the science behind pressworking dies.   

The press forces the substances — composites, metals, or plastics — into the die’s cavity, thus producing a new component in the same shape and size as the die. Drawing dies (used in the fabrication of wire) and casting dies (used in molding) are not utilized with a press, whereas stamping dies are.   

How They’re Used    

It is used to create parts that are both simple and complex, such as discs, sleeves, rings, cylinders, shafts, and more. One of the most significant benefits of this type of forging is the repeated working of the metal increases the strength and grain structure of the finished product. It also increases the product’s fatigue resistance and reduction in voids.  

  Automotive Part Created Through Open Die Forging

Know More About Open Die Forging    

If you want to know more about forging, whether it’s open die or closed die forging, you’ve come to the right place. Get a hold of our customer agents and we’ll gladly answer the questions you have in mind.   

What Services Are Provided by Open Die and Closed Die Forging?

The forging concept allows for a variety of metal deformation alternatives. Closed and open die forging are the two most frequent processes. While the two forms of forging share the same basic notion of employing pressure and temperature to change material, the use of dies to create the metal distinguishes them.

Open Die Forging forming

Open Die Forging

Open die forging is the process of deforming a piece of metal between multiple dies that do not entirely contain it. The metal is transformed as the dies hammer or press with a succession of movements until the desired shape is achieved. Open forging products frequently require additional machining and refining to achieve the tolerances required for completed standards.

Short-run forgings of parts with simple designs, such as rings, sleeves, discs, shafts, and cylinders, are frequently done with open die forging. Open die forging can also be used to create custom shapes. The strength of the grain structure is increased by repeatedly putting the material through the deformation process. Improved fatigue resistance and strength are two more advantages of open die forging.

Closed Die Forging

Closed die forging, also known as impression die forging, is a metal deformation method that compresses a piece of metal to fill an enclosed die impression using pressure.

A series of impression dies is used in some closed die forging procedures to adjust the shape of the material into the final required shape and form. The number of passes the product required through the dies is determined by the type of material, tightness of tolerances, and necessity for heat treatment.

Industries That Benefit From Closed and Open Die Forgings

All types of businesses employ open and closed die forging to make the parts they need. The industries that profit from open die forgings are as follows:

  • Aerospace
  • Agriculture
  • Automotive
  • Consumer
  • Gas and Oil
  • Industrial
  • Medical
  • Military
  • Nautical

Open Die Forging

Want to Know More About Open Die Forging?

Ferralloy Inc. is proud to offer some of the highest-quality forged components available in the market. We know everything there is to know about metal forging, including closed die forging. Contact us or request a quotation today for more information on the many types of forging available.

What is the Barreling Effect in Open Die Forging?

Many among us are familiar with open die forging, either by studying it or simply seeing a glimpse of it in medieval films – where a blacksmith sweats over the forge, slowly pouring molten iron into an open-topped stone mold. So, what exactly is the barreling effect in this method?

Open Die Forging

Why is it Called Open Die Forging?

How Does Barreling Occur in Forging?

It is called “open die forging” because the die, in some cases, is a flat surface that doesn’t enclose the hot metal. During the procedure of an open die forging, if the height is not dropped uniformly, the barreling effect occurs.

When it Occurs

Non-uniform Temperature Distribution of The Hot Metal: If the dies are colder than the workpiece, the heat passes on between the metal workpiece and the dies. Due to this, the layers near the die surfaces become cooler than the layers of the metal at the center. Ergo, the thermal deformation in metal is non-uniform.

Frictional Forces at the Die-work Piece Interfaces: Upon hot forging, the metal can be considered as a fluid, and because they are in a liquid form, the layers of material close to the die surfaces and undergoes frictional forces much more than the layers in the center. Hence, the surfaces of the die resist the deformation of the layers close to them.

How to Avoid Barreling

Barreling is generally undesirable and can be controlled by using effective lubrication to properly lubricate the die.

Open Die Forging

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Open Die Forging Aerospace Application

Have you ever heard of the term “smith forging”? Before all the advancements in tools and technology, forging was performed by a smith using an anvil and hammer to produce and create forged metal – hence, the term. Smith forging, commonly known as open die forging, is a process that involves a hammer striking and deforming a workpiece securely attached to a stationary anvil.

What is Open Die Forging?

Why do Aerospace Companies Prefer Open Die Forging?

The Basics

Open die forging involves the process of forging alloys without having to enclose the workpiece throughout the procedure. In this process, it is required that the operator knows the proper position and orientation of the workpiece to achieve the desired shape.

The dies or surfaces are normally flat in shape. However, there are instances when dies with a specific shape are used for specialized forging. For instance, a die may have a convex, concave, or round surface. It may also be a cut-off tool or a device to form holes.

Advantages of Open Die Forging

Aerospace companies consider the advantages of open die forging before choosing this metalworking process to produce aerospace parts and components. Below are the advantages:

  • Superior strength
  • Better-quality grain size
  • Constant grain flow
  • Enhanced microstructure
  • Improved fatigue resistance
  • Reduced chance of voids

Progressive open die forging techniques are capable of creating multiple shapes notwithstanding the large parts and components used. Simple shapes like rounds, ingots, and bars are easier to produce because of the constant grain flow and improved fatigue resistance.

The most common subjects used for smith forging are steel and related alloys. Nonetheless, other metals can be shaped as desired. These metals include titanium, nickel, and copper alloys.

Industrial or Commercial Aerospace Parts

The following are the parts and components used by aerospace industries that were produced and forged through an open die forging method:

  • Shafts
  • Seamless rolled rings (bearings)
  • Rotor/Propeller Parts
  • Landing gear components
  • Flat bar
  • Flanges
  • Disks

What is Open Die Forging?

Learn More About Open Die Forging Applications

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Characteristics of Open Die Forging

Open die forging is a type of drop forging technique of deforming a metal according to the desired shape. Without any limitation, it can utilize pressure and power inflicted. Some experts even call it free forging since the process involves fewer restrictions. 

what are forged rolled rings?

Features of Open Die Forging

Simple Production Equipment

One of the most notable characteristics of open forging is that it requires only the necessary production equipment. Because of this, the production cost is lowered. In contrast with other forging processes, open die forging bar any possible defects such as porosity, gas holes, or shrinkage. 

High Mechanical Properties

Unlike closed die forging, this type of technique involves basic shaping and flexible operation. Because it uses higher mechanical properties, open forging always acts as an essential part of heavy-duty machinery.  

Manual Operation

Nowadays, forging techniques are controlled by manual operations. Another feature why industries purchase equipment made through an open die forging process is that manual operations hold the dimensions and net near shapes. Hence, the accuracy of product sizes has become relatively low. 

Main Equipment Used

Open forging primarily uses two main types of equipment. These are the hydraulic press and forging hammer. To be more specific, the steam hammer and air hammer are used. Also, a hydraulic press is used to reshape the metals into its desired form. It uses static pressure produced by a liquid solution. 


Open forging uses both machines and labor to produce quality materials that are worth the investment. Because it uses work, the production cost decreases. Hence, open forging is a metal forging technique that’s suitable for single and accurate production.

what is closed die forging?

Learn More About the Open Die Forging Process

Open die forging involves numerous processes such as welding, cutting, mismatch, torsion, bending, etc. Also, it uses a technique called elongation. It is a process commonly performed to produce components for rod and shaft parts. 

If you want to know more about the forging applications and which product to choose, experts at Ferralloy Inc. will help you! Contact our experts today through this link!

What are the Best Applications for Open Die Forging?

Open die forging is known to have the most demanding applications in the metal industry. It is used because of the several features it contributes, such as near net shape materials and improved structural integrity. Read on to know the typical open die forging applications.

what is steel forgings?

Applications and Benefits of Open Die Forging


Forging metals is not an easy job. However, experts found a way to make things more accessible without compromising the quantity of the materials. Forging is commonly used in industries like:

  • Shipbuilding
  • Defense
  • Infrastructure and Construction
  • Aerospace
  • Power Transmission and Gearing
  • Metal Processing
  • And More

Types of Applications

Forging is best used in large and bulky pieces with a short run purpose. These generally consist of custom forged shapes, flanges, hubs, discs, cylinders, shafts, blocks, and forged bars. However, it is popularly used in bespoke designed and single run products.


The most common advantage of forging is of exceptional strength. It can create hard-wearing materials without compromising the quality of a surface finish. Aside from outstanding durability, forging is also known to produce materials with more exceptional grain size and better fatigue resistance. Because of its better resistance level, metals are not prone to wear and tear.

Additionally, the use of open die forging allows the manufacturer to achieve lesser material waste. It is also more economical because fewer materials are used to make its forging goal. Moreso, this type of forging process includes a shaping process that decreases the presence of voids in the finished products. 

Materials Used

Forging uses a wide variety of forging materials. The materials used will depend on the expected finished product. Most manufacturers use bronze, nickel, copper, aluminum, and tool steel. While others use titanium, Inconel, stainless steel, alloy steel, and carbon steel. 

what are forged rolled rings?

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What are the Advancements in Open Die Forging?

A lot of industries know by now that open die forging can measurably decrease the costs of materials, as it needs less starting stock to create several part shapes. Hence, less machining is required to achieve a specific metal component with the added assistance of lesser lead time.

Likewise, it has the ability to reduce wear and tear on the apparatus, tool, or equipment. Fundamentally, most open die forgings are specifically made one at a time, giving every purchaser the option to buy one or hundreds of materials as needed.

where is the best open die forging?

What are the Developments in Open Die Forging?

Improved Structural Integrity

An open die forging often provides weld-free parts formed and manufactured with cleaner and forging-quality materials. One of the developments in this type of forging is that it can now eliminate rejections to achieve a fully improved structural integrity.

Using a slightly different forging process, the same material can be produced from several varieties and sizes of starting billets or ingots. Through this process, a vast range of inventoried grades are created. It only shows that because of this flexibility, any parts or geometry can be produced economically, reasonably, and quickly.

Near Net Shape or Size

Although open die forging is commonly known to produce near net shape or size, advancements in this aspect allow it to create even precise and durable parts. Because every part of the forging process employs forge tooling is numerous ways to decrease the machining process time and input material, a good quality component is produced.

Experts know that tooling is the foundation for a perfect impression forging. However, this application is ideal only when the process involves a high quantity of repeatable products. With open die forging, the tolerances achieved because of advancements in technologies provide less machining requirements to acquire finished sizes and shapes.

Ultimate Solution in Custom Designs

Open die forging is also famous for being the ultimate preference in custom designs. Because it is flexible enough to the point that it is easy to achieve near net shapes and sizes, it becomes even easier to produce custom-designed metal components.

where is the best place to get open die forging?

Where to Get Open Die Forgings?

Are you planning to purchase quality open die forgings? If so, contact Ferralloy Inc. today! Our team is highly trained to help you find your needs.