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The Art of Open Die Forging

There are several distinct kinds of forging. In rolled ring forging, a thick, round piece of metal is punched, and then that portion is rolled and squeezed into a thin ring. In closed die forging, two dies are moved closer to one another until they completely enclose the workpiece and produce the required item. Open die forging is the next process that will be explained in this blog post.

melting of metal before open die forging begins

Open Die Forging in Just a Few Minutes


In open die forging, metal pieces are heated between a top die connected to a ram and a bottom die to distort them. The metal is gently pressed into or hammered into the correct shape while being processed at temperatures between 500 and 2400 °F. To acquire the tolerances for finished standards, the process typically needs a second machine or refinement.


Open die forging is advantageous even if it requires more labor. Both basic and sophisticated pieces can be made using it, including:

  • Shafts
  • Cylinders
  • Rings
  • Sleeves
  • Discs

One of the main advantages of this kind of forging is that the metal is repeatedly worked, increasing its strength and final product’s grain structure. Over and above, it improves the product’s resistance to fatigue and decreases voids.

Because the physical qualities of the metal are enhanced and developed during the forging process, open die forging results in a metal creation that has distinctive physical features. This indicates that as the metal’s grain structure is improved, its density rises, which increases its total strength. In addition, the metal’s grain flow is changed in a way that allows it to counterbalance, accept, and neutralize the stress load burden of a finished part or assembly.

molten ring being subjected to open die forging

In Search of Quality Open Die Forging?

Contact us right away if you want to use open die forging to produce metal parts for your upcoming project.

Forging Zirconium

Zirconium and its alloys show exceptional resistance to sulfuric acid at temperatures above boiling point and concentrations up to 70%. This is over and above to resisting HCI. At temperatures above boiling and concentrations of 90%, the corrosion rate of nitric acid is less than 1 million per year. This metal can also withstand the majority of organic acids, including chlorinated organic, tannic, oxalic, tartaric, lactic, and citric acids, as well as acetic anhydride and acetic acid.

forging end product that contains zirconium

What Can Zirconium Offer?

Better Finishes and Increased Output

Zirconium alloys can be machined using standard techniques; however, they tend to fret and work harden as they go through the process. To pierce previously work-hardened surfaces, tools with higher than usual clearance angles are also required. However, using tools made of cemented carbide or high-speed steel can produce satisfactory results. Tools made of carbide typically offer better finishes and increased output.

Has Mill Products

There are four main grades of mill products: 702, 704, 705, and 706. On common shop equipment, these metals can be punched, bent, and shaped with a few special methods and adjustments. On standard roll-forming or press-brake machinery, grades 702 (unalloyed) and 704 (Zr-Sn-Cr-Fe alloy) strip and sheet can be formed to a bend radius of 5t at room temperature and to a bend radius of 3t at 200°C. Grades 705 and 706 (Zr-Cb alloys) can be bent to 3t and 2.5t and approximately 1.5t at 200°C, respectively.

Easily Welded

Compared to some of the more popular forging metals, such as aluminum alloys and alloy steels, zirconium is more easily welded. Low thermal expansion is the cause of the low distortion during welding. The gas-tungsten arc (GTAW) process is the one that is most frequently used to weld zirconium, but other techniques can also be employed, such as resistance welding, electron beam, plasma arc, and gas metal arc (GMAW).

forging and zirconium

Looking for High-Quality Zirconium?

The best method for determining whether a zirconium weld is acceptable is typically a bend test. If you want to know more about this test, contact us today!

Can You Cast Metal at Home?

Making a pattern and a mold, then pouring molten metal into the mold is the fundamental step in the casting process. After that, the manufacturer will remove the solid metal castings and complete your sculpture. This method is adaptable to diverse metal casting forms, sizes, kinds, and other factors.

end result of castings

Learning the Casting of Metal

Unlimited Options

Before you delve into the steps on how to cast metal at home, it’s best that you know the basics of casting a metal. The options in metal casting are unlimited, whether you wish to cast a simple ring or a complicated piece of metal for a vehicle engine. Your idea of the finished product will determine the kind of metal casting you opt to pursue.

If making jewelry is something you’re interested in, you should deal with precious metals such as platinum, silver, and gold. Your casting options may include anything from cast-iron skillet to modest aluminum tiles if more industrial tasks interest you.

Know the Purpose of Metal Casting

Metal casting is a very adaptable process, even though the majority of castings made worldwide are for transportation and heavy machinery. The following items most likely contain metal casting components:

  • Artistic and sculptural objects
  • Machining tools
  • Transportation: shipping, railways, aerospace, and automobile
  • Defense equipment, tools, and weapons
  • Farming equipment
  • Electrical components
  • Construction equipment
  • Household appliances

Not Advisable When You Have No Experience

Generally, you can set up your own home casting station and foundry, but safety should be the top priority. Once your objectives are clear, you can look at your learning possibilities. In order to meet safety standards, try to get access to a studio and learn metal casting from a qualified instructor. It is also advisable to start with a qualified and experienced expert. Below are some tips you have to consider:

  • Wear long sleeves, natural fiber garments, long pants, insulated gloves, safety goggles, and other protective equipment wherever possible.
  • Work in a well-ventilated area to reduce your chance of exposure to hazardous gases.
  • You should also keep the passageway between the furnace and the mold clear.
  • Make sure you have a chemical fire extinguisher close by.

combined metals for easy castings

Learn More About Castings

At Ferralloy Inc., we want the best for our customers. If you have any questions, let us know!

Why Choose Forgings

In the forging process, metal is crushed into the appropriate high strength shapes under intense pressure. Usually, but not always, the operation is carried out in a heated environment by preheating the metal to the necessary temperature before it is worked. It’s vital to keep in mind that the process in forgings is completely different from the casting process. How? The metal is never melted and poured as is done in the casting process to create forged pieces.

So that the grain flow can be guided in the direction of the major stresses encountered in practical use, forging enhances the physical qualities and refines the grain structure of the metal. Toughness, ductility, and strength are all significantly better in forging than they are in the basic metal.

rolled forgings

Benefits of Forging


The forging technique can produce metal pieces that are more durable than those made using any other method of metalworking. Forgings are therefore nearly always used when dependability and public safety are at stake.

Few Materials Are Needed

Since forgings may be made in almost any shape, assembling several components is not necessary. As the forging does not need to be welded or otherwise attached together, reducing the junction can increase the unit’s total strength.

Used by Several Industries

Parts for all industries can be produced via forging. Critical aircraft components such as shafts for jet turbines and engines, landing gear, structural elements for transportation equipment like cars and railroads, connecting rods, gears, levers, crankshafts, and hand tools like bolts, screws, rivets, and chisels are just a few examples of products made by forging in modern industry.

Enhanced Grain Structure

The grain structure of items can be enhanced by forging. Machining or casting bar stock is inferior to forging because the metal’s natural grain flow cannot be modified to conform to the shape of the finished product.

For a given item, castings with an isotropic grain structure may be just as robust in compression stresses, but custom or even basic forgings outperform castings in sheer and tensile load thanks to the use of the grain flow. Because forgings are structurally reliable, designers can rely on the material to uphold the design’s safety requirements. Additionally, it can deliver a more consistent response to heat treatment and machining operations.

steel forgings

Know More About Forgings

If you’re planning to explore the world of forging, contact our experts at Ferralloy Inc.!

Sizing Matters in Forged Rolled Rings

Between forged rolled rings and products created through finish machining, there is a crucial step that calls for expertise to comprehend the ongoing material and structural advancements in parts intended for aerospace, energy, and other final applications.

nails and other forged rolled rings

Why Does Sizing Matter?

Makes the Material Robust and Solid

During the manufacturing process, a heated, toroidal-shaped workpiece is crushed between the rolls of a ring-rolling mill. It expands the part’s diameter and modifies the cross-section according to the tooling shape. Manufacturing of aircraft, industrial gas turbines, pipes, and pressure vessels, which require symmetrical, solid, and robust parts, entails the use of high-capacity ring production equipment. Forged cylinders are essential components in these industrial applications.

Over the past 10 years, the demand for rolled rings has remained consistent in construction, aerospace, power and energy, and industrial markets. However, there is one stage of manufacturing that is sometimes overlooked, and that is ring sizing.

Reduce Material Waste

“Sizing” is a part of the procedure before the start of finish machining, and it can reduce material waste. By removing machining allowances to account for out-of-roundness, ring expanders are used to precisely dimension and increase the roundness of cylindrical objects.

Alternately, a part can be fully formed on an expander utilizing profiled tooling, which can lessen or even do away with the requirement for final machining. Both scenarios result in decreased cycle times and machining costs.

Reduces Tensions and Corrects Distortions

The expansion process also enhances the material microstructure and other material qualities of a workpiece. For instance, hot expansion causes elongated grains in the circumferential direction, which enhances ductility, whereas cold expansion reduces internal tensions and corrects distortions brought on by heat treatment.

The expansion procedure can be advantageous for many forged metals. Titanium, aluminum, stainless steel, alloy steel, and carbon steel are common materials that are sized using expanders.

Various applications and industries employ finished machined pieces. Some of the extremely noticeable examples of parts made from seamless rings include enormous bearings for engine parts for spacecraft and aviation, large-diameter pipe flanges, and wind turbines.

junk shop with forged rolled rings

Know More About Forged Rolled Rings

Ferralloy Inc. has engineers with exceptional forging experience. Book an appointment with us!

Advantages of Global Sourcing

When a company sources materials or products from another country, it is engaging in global sourcing. There are a number of advantages to global sourcing, including increased competition, lower production costs, and access to a wider variety of goods.

metal found with the help of global sourcing

Why Is Global Sourcing So Significant?

Increased Competition

Global sourcing can help increase healthy competition between industries. When companies source materials or products from multiple countries, they are exposing themselves to new and different suppliers. This increased competition can help keep prices down and quality up. It can also help companies learn about new and innovative products that they may not have been aware of.

Lower Production Costs

Another advantage of global sourcing is that it can help reduce production costs. When companies source materials from multiple countries, they can often get better prices than if they were to source those same materials from just one country. Furthermore, when companies purchase larger volumes of materials, they usually get discounts from suppliers.

Generally speaking, production costs are reduced, and businesses may be able to buy things at a cheaper unit cost. For this reason, organizations with limited funds can use this approach to increase their profits. However, keep in mind that any potential cost savings, such as duty rates, transportation costs, and high-priced overseas administration or correspondence, could still have an impact on the total production cost.

Wider Variety of Goods

One of the key advantages of global sourcing is that it allows companies to access a wider variety of goods. With this technique, companies are no longer limited to locally produced items. Instead, they can source items from all over the world, giving them a more extensive selection to choose from.

global sourcing planning

Manufactured Goods and Global Sourcing

Multiple factors come into play when you’re sourcing component parts or other products from overseas. Besides dealing with primary challenges, the supply chain is typically fragmented and lengthy. To make things easier, you should try out global sourcing. If you need assistance, don’t hesitate to contact us!

Cobalt-Based Alloys

Materials with a cobalt base are alloyed with elements including iron, nickel, tungsten, and chromium to form cobalt alloys. They, like nickel-based alloys, are subjected to harsh conditions such as high acids and temperatures. While cobalt-based alloys are known for their corrosion resistance, they can be made even more durable by using a diffusion treatment.

beautifully formed cobalt alloys

Cobalt Alloy Basics

What Is It?

The metal cobalt (Co) has an atomic number of 27. Like iron and nickel, it is ferromagnetic by nature. Its density of 8.8g/m3 is comparable to that of nickel (8.91g/m3). However, it is heavier than iron. This substance is a high-temperature metal that melts at 1493°C.

Why Use Cobalt-based Alloys?

Cobalt-based alloys have several advantages. They have good mechanical characteristics in general. Likewise, they are heat, wear, and corrosion resistant, making them ideal for use in high-temperature applications like hot gas turbines. Cobalt also has a high resistance to sulfides, preventing the material from sulfidation.

What Is Its Chemical Composition?

This superalloy is a metal in which cobalt makes up the majority of the bulk composition. Most cobalt alloys have a cobalt-chromium base, with chromium functioning as a strengthening alloy. Adding molybdenum and/or tungsten can affect strengthening even more. Nickel is another common ingredient present in many cobalt-based alloys. Such an element is more heat-resistant than cobalt and is used to increase the temperature resistance of components.

end results of cobalt alloys forging

Hardening of Cobalt Alloys

Cobalt-based alloys have good strength. However, that isn’t adequate or practical in some applications. Other metal parts are sometimes required to operate at high temperatures while supporting great loads or being subjected to repeated stress. For these specific parts, diffusion coatings can improve hardness and wear resistance as well as improve corrosion resistance.

Our certified hardening technique can greatly extend the life of your project. We also provide differential treatment for workpieces that are only partially treated. Schedule an appointment with our professionals at Ferralloy Inc. today!

What Is an Alloy Steel Forging?

Alloy steel forgings are common. They are a group of technical alloys that may be heat treated to achieve various mechanical properties. Below are the basic pieces of information you need to know. 

Automotive part production by hot steel forgings process

Everything There Is to Know About Forgings Made of Alloy Steel

Chemical Make-Up

The 0.20 to 0.55 percent carbon alloy steels account for most alloy steel tonnage. These steels are primarily utilized in automobiles and other machinery, and they are usually quenched and tempered to increase the strength and hardness. 

These steels frequently contain manganese, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, aluminum, and boron to improve the characteristics obtained after quenching and tempering. Certain alloy steels include up to 9% chromium, making them appropriate for usage at elevated temperatures, though not to the extent that stainless steels or high nickel alloys are required.  

The components made from alloy steels promote hardenability and quality of steel that portrays its ability to harden in depth, ensuring strength and toughness over the entire section of a forged object after heat treatment.   

What Are the Benefits of Forging Alloy Steel?

After forging, the elements added to alloy steel provide distinct properties, such as greater hardness, increased corrosion resistance, enhanced strength, improved formability (ductility), and weldability. As a result, alloy steel forging is widely used to manufacture wear-resistant items. 

Because of their low cost, wide availability, ease of processing, and good mechanical qualities, alloy steels are preferred in steel forging. However, carbon steels are more resistant to heat and mechanical treatment than alloy steels. 

Small amounts of one or more alloying elements other than carbon, such as manganese, silicon, nickel, titanium, copper, chromium, and aluminum have been added to alloy steel. This gives forgings unique qualities that aren’t found in conventional carbon steel forging. 

Tank pours liquid metal at the steel mill for steel forgings

Where to Get Steel Forgings?

At Ferralloy Inc., we have a variety of steel forgings. Contact us today and we’re glad to be of help you. 

Target Industries of Ring Rolling

Since ring rolling has been a part of our history for many years, it’s safe to say that this innovative process has benefited countless industries throughout the globe. Its invention paved the way for other advancements to blossom, such as the flexible ring rolling machine and the seamless ring rolling process.

Ring rolling is now trending toward new heights as different industries find new ways to benefit from this process. As time passes by, more complex component geometries are currently involved in optimizing this procedure. If you want to learn more about ring rolling and the industry it affects, here are the target industries of this operation.

broken or damaged ring rolling

The Influence of Ring Rolling

Automotive Industry

In the automotive industry, this method is used to create different car parts and components. Solid wheels and wheel disks are often made by this method which helps improve the production of car parts and accessories efficiently. Since its introduction, modern cars have been using them as one or more vehicle components.

Transportation Industry

From cars and trains to ships and planes, this process has plenty of influence in this field. Some of its most notable impacts lie in the high-speed trains and locomotives of different countries. The transportation industry has advanced further because of the help of ring rolling procedures.

Aerospace Industry

Whether on land, air, sea, or space, ring rolling influences every industry. The aerospace industry is one of the newest additions to its sphere of influence and diverse applications. The ring rolling process continues to shorten the production time of materials and bring them to uniform quality.

carefully forged ring rolling

Are You Interested in Ring Rolling Forgings?

Does your next project need ring rolling forgings to continue? Here at Ferralloy Inc., we can supply you with various rolled rings ranging from carbon and titanium to stainless steel. Please send us a message and order your metal components to start your next project today!

Steel Forgings for Container Systems

Steel forgings are produced through a manufacturing process that is different from casting. The unique properties of forgings result in components that are often more reliable and have improved tolerance capabilities.

manual forgings production

Why Use Steel Forgings for Container Systems

Easy to Machine

Steel forgings are easier to machine, making them a more efficient choice for automated production methods. Container lashing systems often use forged steel components because of their superior performance and reliability. Their superior reliability and tolerance capabilities make them a top choice for securing cargo during transport.

Improve Reliability

There are many advantages to using forgings for container systems. The most obvious benefit is the improved reliability that forgings offer. They also have a higher tolerance capability than cast components, meaning they can withstand more stress and wear. Additionally, forgings are much easier to machine, which leads to increased efficiency in automated production methods.

All of these advantages make forgings a natural choice for container systems. The superior performance and reliability of forgings can help ensure that your cargo is secure during transport.

Other Benefits

  • Improves dependability and tolerance capabilities of container system components.
  • Known for their consistency in composition and structure. Their machinability and mechanical characteristics are quite consistent.
  • Parts made of forged steel are more durable and dependable than those made of machined or cast steel.
  • Allows for the creation of designs that can withstand severe loads and strains.
  • When high quality is required, steel forgings are used in container systems.
  • There are no gas cavities, pockets, or cooling faults in steel forging parts, which might cause load failure.

manual forgings production

Get Quality Forgings at Ferralloy!

If you’re looking for a dependable way to lash your containers, steel forgings may be the solution you need. Contact us today to learn more about this versatile and reliable manufacturing process.